Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2019
|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of VolitionRx Limited should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on March 13, 2019. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared using accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q. Accordingly, since they are interim statements, the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements do not include all of the information and notes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, that are, in the opinion of management, necessary to present a fair statement of the results for the interim periods presented. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of results for a full year.
Except as detailed below, there have been no material changes to the Company’s significant accounting policies during the nine months ended September 30, 2019, as compared to the significant accounting policies disclosed in Note 3 of the consolidated financial statements in the Company’s 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company also regularly evaluates estimates and assumptions related to impairment of long-lived assets and stock-based compensation.
The Company bases its estimates and assumptions on current facts, historical experience and various other factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the accrual of costs and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. The actual results experienced by the Company may differ materially and adversely from the Company’s estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and the actual results, future results of operations will be affected.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements for the period ended September 30, 2019 include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries Singapore Volition Pte. Limited (“Singapore Volition”), Belgian Volition SPRL (“Belgian Volition”), Volition Diagnostics UK Limited (“Volition Diagnostics”), Volition America Inc. (“Volition America”), as well as its majority-owned subsidiary Volition Veterinary Diagnostics Development, LLC (“Volition Vet”). All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Except as otherwise indicated by the context, references to the “Company,” “we” and “our” are references to VolitionRx Limited and its subsidiaries.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
For the purposes of the statements of cash flows, we consider interest bearing deposits with original maturity date of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company invests excess cash from its operating cash accounts in overnight investments and reflects these amounts in cash and cash equivalents in the condensed consolidated balance sheets at fair value using quoted prices in active markets for identical assets. At September 30, 2019, cash and cash equivalents totaled approximately $19.7 million, of which $13.1 million was held in an overnight money market account.
Trade accounts receivable are stated at the amount the Company expects to collect. Due to the nature of the accounts receivable balance, the Company believes the risk of doubtful accounts is minimal and therefore no allowance is recorded. If the financial condition of the Company’s customers were to deteriorate, adversely affecting their ability to make payments, additional allowances would be required. The Company may provide for estimated uncollectible amounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to a valuation allowance. Balances that remain outstanding after the Company have used reasonable collection efforts are written off through a charge to the valuation allowance and a credit to accounts receivable. At September 30, 2019, the accounts receivable balance was $16,031.
Beginning in 2014, Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued several Accounting Standards Updates establishing Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (“ASC 606”). ASC 606 replaces most industry-specific revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP with a new principles-based, five-step revenue recognition model. The Company adopted ASC 606 effective January 1, 2019. Under ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenues when the customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. The Company recognizes revenues following the five step model prescribed under ASC 606: (i) identify contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenues when (or as) we satisfy the performance obligation(s).
The Company generates revenue from its license agreement with Active Motif, Inc. ("Active Motif") for the sale of ROU kits from which the Company receives royalties. In addition, revenue is received from external third parties for services the Company performs for them in the laboratory.
Revenues, and their respective treatment for financial reporting purposes under ASC 606, are as follows:
The Company receives royalty revenues on the net sales recognized during the period in which the revenue is earned, and the amount is determinable from the licensee. These are presented in “Royalty” in the consolidated statements of income. The Company does not have future performance obligations under this revenue stream. In accordance with ASC 606, the Company records these revenues based on estimates of the net sales that occurred during the relevant period from the licensee. The relevant period estimates of these royalties are based on preliminary gross sales data provided by Active Motif and analysis of historical gross-to-net adjustments. Differences between actual and estimated royalty revenues are adjusted for in the period in which they become known.
The Company includes revenue recognized from laboratory services performed in the Company’s laboratory on behalf of third parties in “Services” in the consolidated statements of income.
For each development and/or commercialization agreement that results in revenue, the Company identifies all performance obligations, aside from those that are immaterial, which may include a license to intellectual property and know-how, development activities and/or transition activities. In order to determine the transaction price, in addition to any upfront payment, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration at the outset of the contract either utilizing the expected value or most likely amount method, depending on the facts and circumstances relative to the contract. The Company constrains (reduces) the estimates of variable consideration such that it is probable that a significant reversal of previously recognized revenue will not occur throughout the life of the contract. When determining if variable consideration should be constrained, management considers whether there are factors outside the Company’s control that could result in a significant reversal of revenue. In making these assessments, the Company considers the likelihood and magnitude of a potential reversal of revenue. These estimates are re-assessed each reporting period as required.
In February of 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02 – Leases ("Topic 842"), which significantly amends the way companies are required to account for leases. Under the updated leasing guidance, some leases that did not have to be reported previously are now required to be presented as an asset and liability on the balance sheet. In addition, for certain leases, what was previously classified as an operating expense must now be allocated between amortization expense and interest expense. The Company adopted this update as of January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective transition method and prior periods have not been restated. Upon implementation, the Company recognized an initial operating lease right-of-use asset of $110,630 and operating lease liability of $110,630. Due to the simplistic nature of the Company’s leases, no retained earnings adjustment was required. See Note 8(b) for further details.
Basic and Diluted Net Loss Per Share
The Company computes net loss per share in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 260, “Earnings Per Share,” which requires presentation of both basic and diluted earnings per share (EPS) on the face of the income statement. Basic EPS is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders (numerator) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding (denominator) during the period. Diluted EPS gives effect to all dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method. In computing diluted EPS, the average stock price for the period is used in determining the number of shares assumed to be purchased from the exercise of stock options or warrants. As of September 30, 2019, 4,407,860 potential common shares equivalents from warrants and options were excluded from the diluted EPS calculations as their effect is anti-dilutive.
Certain amounts presented in previously issued financial statements have been reclassified to be consistent with the current period presentation. In the statement of operations and comprehensive loss, the Company has reclassified the prior year comparative amounts of research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses to be consistent with the current year classification.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The Company has implemented the new applicable accounting pronouncements that are in effect listed above. The Company does not believe that there are any other new applicable accounting pronouncements that have been issued that might have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations.
The entire disclosure for the nature of an entity's business, major products or services, principal markets including location, and the relative importance of its operations in each business and the basis for the determination, including but not limited to, assets, revenues, or earnings. For an entity that has not commenced principal operations, disclosures about the risks and uncertainties related to the activities in which the entity is currently engaged and an understanding of what those activities are being directed toward.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef