Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies  
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and are expressed in United States dollars. The Company’s fiscal year end is December 31.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company also regularly evaluates estimates and assumptions related to deferred income tax asset valuation allowances, impairment analysis of intangible assets and valuations of stock-based compensation.
The Company bases its estimates and assumptions on current facts, historical experiences and various other factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the accrual of costs and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. The actual results experienced by the Company may differ materially and adversely from the Company’s estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and the actual results, future results of operations could be affected.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019 include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Singapore Volition, Belgian Volition, Volition Diagnostics UK Limited and Volition America, as well as its majority-owned subsidiary Volition Vet. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments with a maturity of three months or less at the time of issuance to be cash equivalents. At December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company had $16,966,168 and $13,427,222, respectively, in cash and cash equivalents. At December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company had $16,499,679 and $12,899,095, respectively, in its domestic accounts in excess of Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured limits. At December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company had $2,887,483 and $451,468, respectively, in its foreign accounts in excess of the Belgian Deposit Guarantee insured limits. At December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company had $170,387 and $76,665, respectively, in its foreign accounts in excess of the Singapore Deposit Insurance Scheme. At December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company had $777,432 and $55,398, respectively, in its foreign accounts in excess of the UK Deposit Protection Scheme.
Basic and Diluted Net Loss Per Share
The Company computes net loss per share in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 260, “Earnings Per Share,” which requires presentation of both basic and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) on the face of the income statement. Basic EPS is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders (numerator) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding (denominator) during the period. Diluted EPS gives effect to all dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method. In computing diluted EPS, the average stock price for the period is used in determining the number of shares assumed to be purchased from the exercise of stock options or warrants. As of December 31, 2019, 4,359,301 potential common shares equivalents from warrants and options were excluded from the diluted EPS calculations as their effect is anti-dilutive.
Foreign Currency Translation
The Company has functional currencies in the Euro, the United States Dollar and British Pounds Sterling and its reporting currency is the United States Dollar. Management has adopted ASC 830-20,
Foreign Currency Matters – Foreign Currency Transactions
. All assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated using the exchange rate prevailing at the balance sheet date. For revenues and expenses, the weighted average exchange rate for the period is used. Gains and losses arising on translation of foreign currency denominated transactions are included in other comprehensive income (loss).
Financial Instruments
Pursuant to ASC 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, an entity is required to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. ASC 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy based on the level of independent, objective evidence surrounding the inputs used to measure fair value. A financial instrument’s categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. ASC 820 prioritizes the inputs into three levels that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1
Level 1 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2
Level 2 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the assets or liabilities such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets); or model-derived valuations in which significant inputs are observable or can be derived principally from, or corroborated by, observable market data.
Level 3
Level 3 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
The Company’s financial instruments consist principally of cash, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, loans payable, and amounts due to related parties. Pursuant to ASC 820, the fair value of cash is determined based on “Level 1” inputs, which consists of quoted prices in active markets for identical assets. The Company believes that the recorded values of all of our other financial instruments approximate their current fair values because of their nature and respective maturity dates or durations.
Income Taxes
Potential benefits of income tax losses are not recognized in the accounts until realization is more likely than not. The Company has adopted ASC 740, Accounting for Income Taxes” as of its inception. Pursuant to ASC 740, the Company is required to compute tax asset benefits for net operating losses carried forward. The potential benefits of net operating losses have not been recognized in these consolidated financial statements because the Company cannot be assured it is more likely than not it will utilize the net operating losses carried forward in future years.
Other Comprehensive Income / (Loss)
ASC 220, “Other Comprehensive Income/(Loss)”, establishes standards for the reporting and display of other comprehensive loss and its components in the financial statements. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had $125,670 of accumulated other comprehensive loss, relating to foreign currency translation.
Revenue Recognition
Beginning in 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued several Accounting Standards Updates establishing Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (“ASC 606”). ASC 606 replaces most industry-specific revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP with a new principles-based, five-step revenue recognition model. The Company adopted ASC 606 effective January 1, 2019. Under ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenues when the customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. The Company recognizes revenues following the five step model prescribed under ASC 606: (i) identify contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenues when (or as) we satisfy the performance obligation(s).
The Company generates revenue from its license agreement with Active Motif, Inc. (“Active Motif”) for the sale of Research Use Only (“ROU”) kits from which the Company receives royalties. In addition, revenue is received from external third parties for services the Company performs for them in its laboratory.
Revenues, and their respective treatment for financial reporting purposes under ASC 606, are as follows:
The Company receives royalty revenues on the net sales recognized during the period in which the revenue is earned, and the amount is determinable from the licensee. These are presented under “Royalty” in the consolidated statements of operations. The Company does not have future performance obligations under this revenue stream. In accordance with ASC 606, the Company records these revenues based on estimates of the net sales that occurred during the relevant period from the licensee. The relevant period estimates of these royalties are based on preliminary gross sales data provided by Active Motif and analysis of historical gross-to-net adjustments. Differences between actual and estimated royalty revenues are adjusted for in the period in which they become known.
The Company includes revenue recognized from laboratory services performed in the Company’s laboratory on behalf of third parties under “Services” in the consolidated statements of operations.
For each development and/or commercialization agreement that results in revenues, the Company identifies all performance obligations, aside from those that are immaterial, which may include a license to intellectual property and know-how, development activities and/or transition activities. In order to determine the transaction price, in addition to any upfront payment, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration at the outset of the contract either utilizing the expected value or most likely amount method, depending on the facts and circumstances relative to the contract. The Company constrains the estimates of variable consideration such that it is probable that a significant reversal of previously recognized revenue will not occur throughout the life of the contract. When determining if variable consideration should be constrained, management considers whether there are factors outside the Company’s control that could result in a significant reversal of revenue. In making these assessments, the Company considers the likelihood and magnitude of a potential reversal of revenue. These estimates are re-assessed each reporting period as required.
Research and Development
In accordance with ASC 730, the Company follows the policy of expensing its research and development costs in the period in which they are incurred. The Company incurred research and development expenses of $10.4 million and $10.9 million during the years ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
In accordance with ASC 360, “Property Plant and Equipment, the Company tests long-lived assets or asset groups for recoverability when events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable. Circumstances which could trigger a review include, but are not limited to: significant decreases in the market price of the asset; significant adverse changes in the business climate or legal factors; accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition or construction of the asset; current period cash flow or operating losses combined with a history of losses or a forecast of continuing losses associated with the use of the asset; and current expectation that the asset will more likely than not be sold or disposed of significantly before the end of its estimated useful life. Recoverability is assessed based on the carrying amount of the asset and its fair value which is generally determined based on the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and the eventual disposal of the asset, as well as specific appraisal in certain instances. An impairment loss is recognized when the carrying amount is not recoverable and exceeds fair value. Impairment losses of $nil and $nil were recognized during the years ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively.
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company records stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, “Compensation – Stock Compensation” and ASC 505-50, "Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees". All transactions in which goods or services are the consideration received for the issuance of equity instruments are accounted for based on the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instrument issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. Equity instruments issued to employees and the cost of the services received as consideration are measured and recognized based on the fair value of the equity instruments issued and are recognized over the employees required service period, which is generally the vesting period.
In February of 2016, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02 – Leases (“Topic 842”), which significantly amends the way companies are required to account for leases. Under the updated leasing guidance, some leases that did not have to be reported previously are now required to be presented as an asset and liability on the balance sheet. In addition, for certain leases, what was previously classified as an operating expense must now be allocated between amortization expense and interest expense. The Company adopted Topic 842 as of January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective transition method and prior periods have not been restated. Upon implementation, the Company recognized an initial operating lease right-of-use asset of $110,630 and operating lease liability of $110,630. Due to the simplistic nature of the Company's leases, no retained earnings adjustment was required.
Grants received
The Company receives funding from public bodies for a proportion of the costs of specific projects. Funds are received in line with claims submitted for the agreed expenditure. The Company recognizes grant income once claims submitted are approved and funds are received. General working capital funding received at the commencement of a project is treated as deferred income until it has been utilized for the expenditure claimed. Funding received that is repayable is shown as a liability.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The Company has implemented all new accounting pronouncements that are in effect. The Company does not believe that there are any other new accounting pronouncements that have been issued that might have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations.