Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2020
|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Basis of Presentation
The interim consolidated financial statements of VolitionRx Limited (the “Company”, "VolitionRx”, "we" or "us") for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, are not audited. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with the requirements for unaudited interim periods and, consequently, do not include all disclosures required to be made in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). In the opinion of our management, the accompanying consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair presentation of our financial position as of March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and our results of operations and cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The results of operations for the periods ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, are not necessarily indicative of the results for a full-year period. These interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") on February 20, 2020.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company also regularly evaluates estimates and assumptions related to impairment of long-lived assets and stock-based compensation.
The Company bases its estimates and assumptions on current facts, historical experience and various other factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the accrual of costs and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. The actual results experienced by the Company may differ materially and adversely from the Company’s estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and the actual results, future results of operations will be affected.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying interim consolidated financial statements for the period ended March 31, 2020 include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. The Company has one wholly-owned subsidiary, Singapore Volition. Singapore Volition has one wholly-owned subsidiary, Belgian Volition SPRL (“Belgian Volition”). Belgian Volition has four subsidiaries, Volition Diagnostics UK Limited (“Volition Diagnostics”), Volition America, Inc. (“Volition America”), Volition Germany GmbH (“Volition Germany”), and its majority-owned subsidiary Volition Veterinary Diagnostics Development LLC (“Volition Vet”). See Note 8 for more information regarding Volition Vet and Volition Germany. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
For the purposes of the statements of cash flows, we consider interest bearing deposits with original maturity date of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company invests excess cash from its operating cash accounts in overnight investments and reflects these amounts in cash and cash equivalents in the condensed consolidated balance sheets at fair value using quoted prices in active markets for identical assets. At March 31, 2020, cash and cash equivalents totaled approximately $12.0 million, of which $8.1 million was held in an overnight money market account.
Trade accounts receivable are stated at the amount the Company expects to collect. Due to the nature of the accounts receivable balance, the Company believes the risk of doubtful accounts is minimal and therefore no allowance is recorded. If the financial condition of the Company’s customers were to deteriorate, adversely affecting their ability to make payments, additional allowances would be required. The Company may provide for estimated uncollectible amounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to a valuation allowance. Balances that remain outstanding after the Company has used reasonable collection efforts are written off through a charge to the valuation allowance and a credit to accounts receivable. At March 31, 2020, the accounts receivable balance was $242.
The Company adopted ASC 606 effective January 1, 2019. Under ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenues when the customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. The Company recognizes revenues following the five step model prescribed under ASC 606: (i) identify contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenues when (or as) we satisfy the performance obligation(s).
The Company generates revenue from its license agreement with Active Motif Inc. (“Active Motif”) for the sale of Research Use Only kits from which the Company receives royalties. In addition, revenue is received from external third parties for product sales and/or services the Company performs for them in its laboratory.
Revenues, and their respective treatment for financial reporting purposes under ASC 606, are as follows:
The Company receives royalty revenues on the net sales recognized during the period in which the revenue is earned, and the amount is determinable from the licensee. These are presented in “Royalty” in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Company does not have future performance obligations under this revenue stream. In accordance with ASC 606, the Company records these revenues based on estimates of the net sales that occurred during the relevant period from the licensee. The relevant period estimates of these royalties are based on preliminary gross sales data provided by Active Motif and analysis of historical gross-to-net adjustments. Differences between actual and estimated royalty revenues are adjusted for in the period in which they become known.
The Company includes revenue from product sales recognized during the period in which goods are shipped to third parties, and the amount is deemed collectable from the third parties. These are presented in “Product sales” in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company includes revenue recognized from laboratory services performed in the Company’s laboratory on behalf of third parties in “Services” in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
For each development and/or commercialization agreement that results in revenues, the Company identifies all performance obligations, aside from those that are immaterial, which may include a license to intellectual property and know-how, development activities and/or transition activities. In order to determine the transaction price, in addition to any upfront payment, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration at the outset of the contract either utilizing the expected value or most likely amount method, depending on the facts and circumstances relative to the contract. The Company constrains (reduces) the estimates of variable consideration such that it is probable that a significant reversal of previously recognized revenue will not occur throughout the life of the contract. When determining if variable consideration should be constrained, management considers whether there are factors outside the Company’s control that could result in a significant reversal of revenue. In making these assessments, the Company considers the likelihood and magnitude of a potential reversal of revenue. These estimates are re-assessed each reporting period as required.
Basic and Diluted Net Loss Per Share
The Company computes net loss per share in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 260, “Earnings Per Share,” which requires presentation of both basic and diluted earnings per share (EPS) on the face of the income statement. Basic EPS is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders (numerator) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding (denominator) during the period. Diluted EPS gives effect to all dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method. In computing diluted EPS, the average stock price for the period is used in determining the number of shares assumed to be purchased from the exercise of stock options or warrants. As of March 31, 2020, 4,325,419 potential common shares equivalents from warrants and options were excluded from the diluted EPS calculations as their effect is anti-dilutive.
Certain amounts presented in previously issued financial statements have been reclassified to be consistent with the current period presentation. In the statement of operations and comprehensive loss, the Company has reclassified the prior year comparative amounts of research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses and cash flows to be consistent with the current year classification.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The Company does not believe there are any other new applicable accounting pronouncements that have been issued that might have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations.
COVID-19 Pandemic Impact
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization designated the outbreak of the novel strain of coronavirus known as COVID-19 as a global pandemic. Governments and businesses around the world have taken unprecedented actions to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, including, but not limited to, shelter-in-place orders, quarantines, significant restrictions on travel, as well as restrictions that prohibit many employees from going to work. Uncertainty with respect to the economic impacts of the pandemic has introduced significant volatility in the financial markets. The Company did not observe significant impacts on its business or results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 due to the global emergence of COVID-19. While the extent to which COVID-19 impacts the Company’s future results will depend on future developments, the pandemic and associated economic impacts could result in a material impact to the Company’s future financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef