Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2022
|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|Note 1 - Basis Of Presentation And Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 1 – Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The interim consolidated financial statements of VolitionRx Limited (the “Company”, “VolitionRx,” “we” or “us”) for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2021, respectively, are unaudited. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with the requirements for unaudited interim periods and, consequently, do not include all disclosures required to be made in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). In the opinion of our management, the accompanying consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair presentation of our financial position as of March 31, 2022, and our results of operations and cash flows for the periods ended March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2021, respectively. The results of operations for the periods ended March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2021, respectively, are not necessarily indicative of the results for a full-year period. These interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on March 30, 2022.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company also regularly evaluates estimates and assumptions related to deferred income tax asset valuation allowances, useful lives of property and equipment and intangible assets, borrowing rate used in operating lease right-of-use asset and liability valuations, impairment analysis of intangible assets, and valuations of stock-based compensation.
The Company bases its estimates and assumptions on current facts, historical experience and various other factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the accrual of costs and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. The actual results experienced by the Company may differ materially and adversely from the Company’s estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and the actual results, future results of operations could be affected.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements for the period ended March 31, 2022 include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. The Company has two wholly-owned subsidiaries Singapore Volition Pte. Limited (“Singapore Volition”) and Volition Global Services SRL (“Volition Global”). Singapore Volition has one wholly-owned subsidiary, Belgian Volition SRL (“Belgian Volition”). Belgian Volition has four subsidiaries, Volition Diagnostics UK Limited (“Volition Diagnostics”), Volition America, Inc. (“Volition America”), Volition Germany GmbH (“Volition Germany”), and its one majority-owned subsidiary Volition Veterinary Diagnostics Development LLC (“Volition Vet”). See Note 8(f) for more information regarding Volition Vet, Volition Germany and Volition America. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
For the purposes of the statements of cash flows, the Company considers interest bearing deposits with original maturity dates of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company invests excess cash from its operating cash accounts in overnight investments and reflects these amounts in cash and cash equivalents in the condensed consolidated balance sheets at fair value using quoted prices in active markets for identical assets. As of March 31, 2022, cash and cash equivalents totaled approximately $23.7 million, of which $10.2 million was held in an overnight money market account.
Trade accounts receivable are stated at the amount the Company expects to collect. Due to the nature of the accounts receivable balance, the Company believes the risk of doubtful accounts is minimal and therefore no allowance is recorded. If the financial condition of the Company’s customers were to deteriorate, adversely affecting their ability to make payments, additional allowances would be required. The Company may provide for estimated uncollectible amounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to a valuation allowance. Balances that remain outstanding after the Company has used reasonable collection efforts are written off through a charge to the valuation allowance and a credit to accounts receivable. As of March 31, 2022, the accounts receivable balance was $72,371 and the allowance for doubtful debts was $nil.
The Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”)606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” effective January 1, 2019. Under ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenues when the customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. The Company recognizes revenues following the five step model prescribed under ASC 606: (i) identify contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenues when (or as) the Company satisfies the performance obligation(s).
The Company generates product revenues from the sale of its Nu.Q® Vet Cancer Screening Test, from the sale of nucleosomes, and from the sale of Research Use Only kits. In addition, revenue is received from external third parties for Nu.Q® Discover services the Company performs for them in its laboratory.
Revenues, and their respective treatment for financial reporting purposes under ASC 606, are as follows:
The Company receives royalty revenues on the net sales recognized during the period in which the revenue is earned, and the amount is determinable from the licensee. These are presented in “Royalty” in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Company does not have future performance obligations under this revenue stream. In accordance with ASC 606, the Company records these revenues based on estimates of the net sales that occurred during the relevant period from the licensee. The relevant period estimates of these royalties are based on preliminary gross sales data provided by Customers and analysis of historical gross-to-net adjustments. Differences between actual and estimated royalty revenues are adjusted for in the period in which they become known.
The Company includes revenue from product sales recognized during the period in which goods are shipped to third parties, and the amount is deemed collectable from the third parties. These are presented in “Product” in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company includes revenue recognized from laboratory services performed in the Company’s laboratory on behalf of third parties in “Services” in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
For each development and/or commercialization agreement that results in revenues, the Company identifies all performance obligations, aside from those that are immaterial, which may include a license to intellectual property and know-how, development activities and/or transition activities. In order to determine the transaction price, in addition to any upfront payment, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration at the outset of the contract either utilizing the expected value or most likely amount method, depending on the facts and circumstances relative to the contract. The Company constrains (reduces) the estimates of variable consideration such that it is probable that a significant reversal of previously recognized revenue will not occur throughout the life of the contract. When determining if variable consideration should be constrained, management considers whether there are factors outside the Company’s control that could result in a significant reversal of revenue. In making these assessments, the Company considers the likelihood and magnitude of a potential reversal of revenue. These estimates are re-assessed each reporting period as required.
The Company includes revenue recognized from the licensing of certain rights to third parties in “Licensing” in the consolidated statements of operations. For each development and/or commercialization agreement that results in revenues, the Company identifies all performance obligations, aside from those that are immaterial, which may include a license to intellectual property and know-how, development activities and/or transition activities. In order to determine the transaction price, in addition to any upfront payment, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration at the outset of the contract either utilizing the expected value or most likely amount method, depending on the facts and circumstances relative to the contract. The Company constrains (reduces) the estimates of variable consideration such that it is probable that a significant reversal of previously recognized revenue will not occur throughout the life of the contract. When determining if variable consideration should be constrained, management considers whether there are factors outside the Company’s control that could result in a significant reversal of revenue. In making these assessments, the Company considers the likelihood and magnitude of a potential reversal of revenue. These estimates are re-assessed each reporting period as required.
Deferred Revenue (Contract Liabilities) and Contract Assets
Deferred revenue consists of amounts for which we have an unconditional right to bill, and/or amounts for which payment has been received–including non-refundable amounts, but have not been recognized as revenue because the related performance obligations are deemed incomplete. As at March 31, 2022, the Company recorded $10.0 million as deferred revenue in respect of a non-refundable payment received in relation to a licensing and product supply agreement with Heksa Corporation. As at March 31, 2021, the Company recorded $nil deferred revenue.
Contract assets include costs and services incurred on contracts with open performance obligations. These contract assets were immaterial as of March 31, 2022.
Basic and Diluted Net Loss Per Share
The Company computes net loss per share in accordance with ASC 260, “Earnings Per Share,” which requires presentation of both basic and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) on the face of the statement of operations and comprehensive loss. Basic EPS is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders (numerator) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding (denominator) during the period. Diluted EPS gives effect to all dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method. In computing diluted EPS, the average stock price for the period is used in determining the number of shares assumed to be purchased from the exercise of stock options or warrants. As of March 31, 2022, 6,346,268 potential common shares equivalents from warrants, options, and restricted stock units (“RSUs”) were excluded from the diluted EPS calculations as their effect is anti-dilutive.
Foreign Currency Translation
The Company has functional currencies in Euros, US Dollars and British Pounds Sterling and its reporting currency is the US Dollar. Management has adopted ASC 830-20, “Foreign Currency Matters – Foreign Currency Transactions”. All assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated using the exchange rate prevailing at the balance sheet date. For revenues and expenses, the weighted average exchange rate for the period is used. Gains and losses arising on translation of foreign currency denominated transactions are included in other comprehensive income (loss).
Research and Development
In accordance with ASC 730, the Company follows the policy of expensing its research and development costs in the period in which they are incurred. The Company incurred research and development expenses of $3.6 million and $3.9 million during the three-months ended March 31, 2022, and March 31, 2021, respectively.
The Company records stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, “Compensation – Stock Compensation”. Under the provisions of ASC 718, stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date, based on the fair value of the award, and is recognized over the employee’s requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period. The fair value of our stock options and warrants is estimated using a Black-Scholes option valuation model. Restricted stock units are valued based on the closing stock price on the date of grant. Refer to Note 7 for further details.
Certain amounts presented in previously issued financial statements have been reclassified to be consistent with the current period presentation. The Company has reclassified the prior period comparative amounts in Part I, Item 2. “MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS” of the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2022, in relation to Research and Development expenses, General and Administrative expenses and Sales and Marketing expenses to be consistent with the current year classification.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The Company has implemented all new accounting pronouncements that are in effect. The Company does not believe there are any other new accounting pronouncements that have been issued that might have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations.
COVID-19 Pandemic Impact
As of the date of this filing, there continue to be widespread concerns regarding the ongoing impacts and disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in the regions in which the Company operates. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company has experienced and may continue to experience disruptions that could impact our clinical trials, including delays enrolling patients and in sample collection.
The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will impact the Company’s business, financial condition, and results of operations in the future is highly uncertain and will be affected by a number of factors. These include the duration and extent of the COVID-19 pandemic, the development of new variants of the COVID-19 virus that may be more contagious or virulent than previous versions, the scope of mandated or recommended containment and mitigation measures, the effect of government stabilization and recovery efforts, and the success of vaccine distribution programs.