Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and are expressed in US dollars. The Company’s fiscal year end is December 31.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company also regularly evaluates estimates and assumptions related to deferred income tax asset valuation allowances, useful lives of property and equipment and intangible assets, borrowing rate used in operating lease right-of-use asset and liability valuations, impairment analysis of intangible assets and valuations of stock-based compensation.
The Company bases its estimates and assumptions on current facts, historical experiences and various other factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the accrual of costs and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. The actual results experienced by the Company may differ materially and adversely from the Company’s estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and the actual results, future results of operations could be affected.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2022 include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. The Company has two wholly owned subsidiaries, Singapore Volition Pte. Limited and Volition Global Services SRL. Singapore Volition has one wholly owned subsidiary, Belgian Volition SRL. Belgian Volition has four subsidiaries, Volition Diagnostics UK Limited, Volition America, Inc, Volition Germany GmbH, and its one majority owned subsidiary Volition Veterinary Diagnostics Development LLC. See Note 10 (f), Commitments and Contingencies – Other Commitments, for more information regarding Volition Vet, Volition Germany and Volition America. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Certain amounts presented in previously issued financial statements have been reclassified to be consistent with the current period presentation. In the statement of operations and comprehensive loss, the Company has reclassified the prior year comparative amounts of research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses to be consistent with the current year classification.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments with a maturity of three months or less at the time of issuance to be cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, the Company had $10,867,050 and $20,581,313, respectively, in cash and cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, the Company had $10,079,089 and $19,753,878, respectively, in its domestic accounts in excess of Federal Deposit insured limits. As of December 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, the Company had $1,725,981 and $134,134, respectively, in its foreign accounts in excess of the Belgian Deposit insured limits. As of December 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, the Company had $100,601 and $102,514, respectively, in its foreign accounts in excess of the Singapore Deposit insured limits. As of December 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, the Company had $326,631 and $142,410, respectively, in its foreign accounts in excess of the UK Deposit insured limits.
Trade accounts receivable are stated at the amount the Company expects to collect. Due to the nature of the accounts receivable balance, the Company believes the risk of doubtful accounts is minimal and therefore no allowance is recorded. If the financial condition of the Company’s customers were to deteriorate, adversely affecting their ability to make payments, additional allowances would be required. The Company may provide for estimated uncollectible amounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to a valuation allowance. Balances that remain outstanding after the Company has used reasonable collection efforts are written off through a charge to the valuation allowance and a credit to accounts receivable. As of December 31, 2022, the accounts receivable balance was $72,609 and the allowance for doubtful accounts was $nil.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at historical cost and depreciated over the useful life of the asset using the straight-line method. Useful lives are assigned to assets depending on their category. For details regarding property and equipment, refer to Note 4.
Basic and Diluted Net Loss Per Share
The Company computes net loss per share in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 260, “Earnings Per Share,” which requires presentation of both basic and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) on the face of the income statement. Basic EPS is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders (numerator) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding (denominator) during the period. Diluted EPS gives effect to all dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method. In computing diluted EPS, the average stock price for the period is used in determining the number of shares assumed to be purchased from the exercise of stock options or warrants. As of December 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, 7,787,013 and 6,323,268, respectively, of potential common shares equivalents from stock options, RSUs and warrants were excluded from the diluted EPS calculations as their effect is anti-dilutive.
Foreign Currency Translation
The Company has functional currencies in Euros, US Dollars and British Pounds Sterling and its reporting currency is the US Dollar. Management has adopted ASC 830-20, “Foreign Currency Matters – Foreign Currency Transactions”. All assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated using the exchange rate prevailing at the balance sheet date. For revenues and expenses, the weighted average exchange rate for the period is used. Gains and losses arising on translation of foreign currency denominated transactions are included in other comprehensive income (loss).
Fair Value Measurements
Pursuant to ASC 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures,” an entity is required to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. ASC 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy based on the level of independent, objective evidence surrounding the inputs used to measure fair value. A financial instrument’s categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. ASC 820 prioritizes the inputs into three levels that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the assets or liabilities such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets); or model-derived valuations in which significant inputs are observable or can be derived principally from, or corroborated by, observable market data.
Level 3 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
The Company’s financial instruments consist principally of cash, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, notes payable, and amounts due to related parties. Pursuant to ASC 820, the fair value of cash is determined based on “Level 1” inputs, which consists of quoted prices in active markets for identical assets. The Company believes that the recorded values of all of our other financial instruments approximate their current fair values because of their nature and respective maturity dates or durations.
Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
ASC 220, “Other Comprehensive Income/(Loss)”, establishes standards for the reporting and display of other comprehensive loss and its components in the financial statements. As of December 31, 2022, the Company had $227,097 of accumulated other comprehensive income, relating to foreign currency translation.
Potential benefits of income tax losses are not recognized in the accounts until realization is more likely than not. The Company has adopted ASC 740, “Accounting for Income Taxes” as of its inception. Pursuant to ASC 740, the Company is required to compute tax asset benefits for net operating losses carried forward. The potential benefits of net operating losses have not been recognized in these consolidated financial statements because the Company cannot be assured it is more likely than not it will utilize the net operating losses carried forward in future years. Refer to Note 9 for further details.
The Company adopted ASC 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” effective January 1, 2019. Under ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenues when the customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. The Company recognizes revenues following the five-step model prescribed under ASC 606: (i) identify contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenues when (or as) the Company satisfies the performance obligation(s).
The Company generates product revenues from the sale of its Nu.Q® Vet Cancer Test, from the sale of nucleosomes, and from the sale of research use only kits. In addition, revenue is received from external third parties for services the Company performs for them in its laboratory.
Revenues, and their respective treatment for financial reporting purposes under ASC 606, are as follows:
The Company receives royalty revenues on the net sales recognized during the period in which the revenue is earned, and the amount is determinable from the licensee. These are presented under “Royalty” under the consolidated statements of operations. The Company does not have future performance obligations under this revenue stream. In accordance with ASC 606, the Company records these revenues based on estimates of the net sales that occurred during the relevant period from the licensee. Differences between actual and estimated royalty revenues are adjusted for in the period in which they become known.
The Company includes revenue from product sales recognized during the period in which goods are shipped to third parties, and the amount is deemed collectable from the third parties. These are presented in “Product” in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company includes revenue recognized from laboratory services performed in the Company’s laboratory on behalf of third parties under “Service” under the consolidated statements of operations.
For each development and/or commercialization agreement that results in revenues, the Company identifies all performance obligations, aside from those that are immaterial, which may include a license to intellectual property and know-how, development activities and/or transition activities. In order to determine the transaction price, in addition to any upfront payment, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration at the outset of the contract either utilizing the expected value or most likely amount method, depending on the facts and circumstances relative to the contract. The Company constrains the estimates of variable consideration such that it is probable that a significant reversal of previously recognized revenue will not occur throughout the life of the contract. When determining if variable consideration should be constrained, management considers whether there are factors outside the Company’s control that could result in a significant reversal of revenue. In making these assessments, the Company considers the likelihood and magnitude of a potential reversal of revenue. These estimates are re-assessed each reporting period as required.
The Company includes revenue recognized from the licensing of certain rights to third parties in “Licensing” in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. For each development and/or commercialization agreement that results in revenues, the Company identifies all performance obligations, aside from those that are immaterial, which may include a license to intellectual property and know-how, development activities and/or transition activities. In order to determine the transaction price, in addition to any upfront payment, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration at the outset of the contract either utilizing the expected value or most likely amount method, depending on the facts and circumstances relative to the contract. The Company constrains (reduces) the estimates of variable consideration such that it is probable that a significant reversal of previously recognized revenue will not occur throughout the life of the contract. When determining if variable consideration should be constrained, management considers whether there are factors outside the Company’s control that could result in a significant reversal of revenue. In making these assessments, the Company considers the likelihood and magnitude of a potential reversal of revenue. These estimates are re-assessed each reporting period as required.
Revenue from Heska License Agreement
On March 28, 2022, Belgian Volition entered into a Master License and Supply Agreement (the “License Agreement”) with Heska Corporation (“Heska”), pursuant to which Belgian Volition granted Heska worldwide exclusive rights to sell the Nu.Q® Vet Cancer Test at the point of care (“POC”) initially for the screening of lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma in dogs (“Canine Lymphoma & HSA”), and non-exclusive rights to sell its Nu.Q® Vet Cancer Test in kit format (“Kits”) through Heska’s network of central reference laboratories (“Central Lab”) initially for Canine Lymphoma & HSA.
Under and subject to the terms of the License Agreement, Belgian Volition received an upfront payment of $10.0 million in 2022, and is eligible to receive further milestone payments of (i) $6.5 million upon the first commercial sale by or on behalf of Heska of a POC screening test for Canine Lymphoma & HSA, (ii) $6.5 million upon the first commercial sale by or on behalf of Heska of a POC monitoring test for the same conditions, and (iii) $5.0 million upon the first commercial sale by or on behalf of Heska of a screening or monitoring test for lymphoma in felines. The License Agreement contains additional time-based triggers for the payment of the above-described milestones as well. Any further expansion of the License Agreement to cover other cancer and non-cancer indications is subject to negotiation between the parties.
Belgian Volition will also supply Central Lab Kits and will receive a pre-agreed price per test, adjusted annually for inflation. The price per test for POC key components (“Key Components”) is also discounted to reflect the lower cost to Belgian Volition and additional assembly costs for Heska, as well as consideration for Heska’s upfront and milestone payments. Heska will assemble the Key Components for use at the POC, and is additionally responsible for marketing and distribution efforts and related costs.
The License Agreement may be terminated by either party for a material breach by the other party, subject to notice and cure provisions, or in the event of the other party’s insolvency. Heska also has the option to terminate if it is unable to adapt the Key Components for use on a POC platform. Unless earlier terminated, the License Agreement will continue in effect for an initial term of 22 years for POC and 5 years for Central Lab, with the Central Lab term then continuing on a rolling one-year basis for the POC term.
According to ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”, a performance obligation is a commitment to provide a distinct good or service or a series of distinct goods or services. Goods and services that are not distinct are bundled with other goods or services in the contract until a bundle of goods or services that is distinct is created. A good or service promised to a customer is distinct if the customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer and the entity’s promise to transfer the good or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract.
In conjunction with the License Agreement, the Company evaluated whether or not the performance obligations granted under the License Agreement were distinct and concluded that they were not distinct as Heska could not benefit from the license without the supply (manufacturing) services. The supply services are highly specialized and are dependent on the supply of the product from the Company. As such, the performance obligations granted under the License Agreement were combined to constitute a single performance obligation and the Company accounts for them as a single contract.
During the first quarter of 2022, the Company received a $10.0 million upfront payment under the License Agreement, which is included as deferred revenue on the accompanying consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2022. The Company allocated the upfront payment and any milestone payments that were not constrained to the single performance obligation in the contract. The Company expects to recognize the $10.0 million upfront payment and any milestone amounts not constrained under the License Agreement over time using an output method based on Key Components and Kits supplied to Heska. As of December 31, 2022, the remaining $18.0 million in milestone payments under the License Agreement remains constrained and will not begin to be recognized until such amount becomes unconstrained.
In determining the transaction price, the Company analyzed the variable consideration and whether or not such variable consideration was constrained. The Company will reassess this variable consideration at each reporting period and adjust the transaction price, if necessary. The total Key Components and Kits that the Company expects to manufacture for Heska over the life of the contract will be a significant judgment in recognizing revenue once the Company begins to supply product to Heska.
Deferred Revenue (Contract Liabilities) and Contract Assets
Deferred revenue consists of amounts for which the Company has an unconditional right to bill, and/or amounts for which payment has been received (including non-refundable amounts) but have not been recognized as revenue because the related performance obligations are deemed incomplete. As of December 31, 2022, the Company recorded $10.0 million as deferred revenue in respect of a non-refundable payment received in relation to a licensing and product supply agreement with Heska Corporation. As of December 31, 2021, the Company recorded $12,512 as deferred revenue.
Contract assets include costs and services incurred on contracts with open performance obligations. These contract assets were immaterial as of December 31, 2022.
Research and Development
In accordance with ASC 730, the Company follows the policy of expensing its research and development costs in the period in which they are incurred. The Company incurred research and development expenses of $14.6 million and $13.0 million during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
In accordance with ASC 360, “Property Plant and Equipment”, the Company tests long-lived assets or asset groups for recoverability when events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable. Circumstances which could trigger a review include, but are not limited to: significant decreases in the market price of the asset; significant adverse changes in the business climate or legal factors; accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition or construction of the asset; current period cash flow or operating losses combined with a history of losses or a forecast of continuing losses associated with the use of the asset; and current expectation that the asset will more likely than not be sold or disposed of significantly before the end of its estimated useful life. Recoverability is assessed based on the carrying amount of the asset and its fair value which is generally determined based on the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and the eventual disposal of the asset, as well as specific appraisal in certain instances. An impairment loss is recognized when the carrying amount is not recoverable and exceeds fair value. Impairment losses of $nil and $nil were recognized during the years ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
The Company records stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, “Compensation – Stock Compensation”. Under the provisions of ASC 718, stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date, based on the fair value of the award, and is recognized over the employee’s requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period. The fair value of our stock options and warrants is estimated using a Black-Scholes option valuation model. Restricted stock units are valued based on the closing stock price on the date of grant. The estimated fair value of RSUs that include a market vesting condition will be measured on the grant date using a Monte Carlo Simulation model. Refer to Note 8 for further details.
The Company accounts for leases in accordance with ASC Topic 842, “Leases.” The Company determines whether a contract is a lease at contract inception or for a modified contract at the modification date. At inception or modification, the Company recognizes right-of-use assets (“ROU”) and related lease liabilities on the balance sheet for all leases greater than one year in duration. Lease liabilities and their corresponding ROU assets are initially measured at the present value of the unpaid lease payments as of the lease commencement date. If the lease contains a renewal and/or termination option, the exercise of the option is included in the term of the lease if the Company is reasonably certain that a renewal or termination option will be exercised. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses an estimated incremental borrowing rate (“IBR”) based on the information available at the commencement date of the respective lease to determine the present value of future payments. The IBR is determined by estimating what it would cost the Company to borrow a collateralized amount equal to the total lease payments over the lease term based on the contractual terms of the lease and the location of the leased asset.
Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term in equal amounts of rent expense attributed to each period during the term of the lease, regardless of when actual payments are made. This generally results in rent expense in excess of cash payments during the early years of a lease and rent expense less than cash payments in later years. The difference between rent expense recognized and actual rental payments is typically represented as the spread between the ROU asset and lease liability.
When calculating the present value of minimum lease payments, we account for leases as one single lease component if a lease has both lease and non-lease fixed cost components. Variable lease and non-lease cost components are expensed as incurred.
We do not recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities for short-term leases that have an initial lease term of 12 months or less. We recognize the lease payments associated with short-term leases as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
The Company receives funding from public bodies for a proportion of the costs of specific projects. Funds are received in line with claims submitted for the agreed expenditure. The Company recognizes grant income once claims submitted are approved and funds are received. General working capital funding received at the commencement of a project is treated as deferred income and is recorded in accrued liabilities until it has been utilized for the expenditure claimed. Funding received that is repayable is shown as a liability.
The Company has implemented all new accounting pronouncements that are in effect. The Company does not believe that there are any other new accounting pronouncements that have been issued that might have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations.
COVID-19 Pandemic Impact
As of the date of this filing, there continue to be widespread concerns regarding the ongoing impacts and disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in the regions in which the Company operates. As a result of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company has experienced and may continue to experience disruptions to its clinical trials, including patient enrollment and sample collection delays.
Although the Company has taken steps to mitigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, the extent to which the pandemic will impact its business, financial condition, and results of operations in future periods is highly uncertain and will be affected by a number of factors outside of the Company’s control. These include the duration and extent of the COVID-19 pandemic, the development of new variants of the COVID-19 virus that may be more contagious or virulent than previous versions, the scope of mandated or recommended containment and mitigation measures, the effect of government stabilization and recovery efforts, and the success of vaccine distribution programs.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers. This ASU amends ASC 805 to require acquiring entities to apply ASC 606 to recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities in business combinations. The standard is effective for the Company's fiscal year beginning January 1, 2023, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.