Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2023
|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 1 – Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The interim condensed consolidated financial statements of VolitionRx Limited (the “Company” or “VolitionRx”) for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and September 30, 2022, are unaudited. These interim consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with the requirements for unaudited interim periods and, consequently, do not include all disclosures required to be made in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). In the opinion of the Company’s management, the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial position as of September 30, 2023, and its results of operations and cash flows for the periods ended September 30, 2023 and September 30, 2022. The results of operations for the periods ended September 30, 2023 and September 30, 2022, are not necessarily indicative of the results for a full-year period. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") on March 15, 2023 (the “Annual Report”).
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company also regularly evaluates estimates and assumptions related to deferred income tax asset valuation allowances, useful lives of property and equipment and intangible assets, borrowing rate used in operating lease right-of-use asset and liability valuations, impairment analysis of intangible assets, and valuations of stock-based compensation.
The Company bases its estimates and assumptions on current facts, historical experience and various other factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the accrual of costs and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. In addition, the Company has considered the potential impact of certain economic factors, including inflation, rising interest rates, and recessionary pressures, on its business and operations. Although the full impact of these factors is unknown and cannot be reasonably estimated, the Company believes it has made appropriate accounting estimates and assumptions based on the facts and circumstances available as of the reporting date. However, the Company’s actual results may differ materially and adversely from these estimates and assumptions, which may result in material effects on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and the actual results, the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements could be materially affected.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements for the period ended September 30, 2023 include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. The Company has two wholly owned subsidiaries, Singapore Volition Pte. Limited (“Singapore Volition”) and Volition Global Services SRL (“Volition Global”). Singapore Volition has one wholly owned subsidiary, Belgian Volition SRL (“Belgian Volition”). Belgian Volition has four subsidiaries, Volition Diagnostics UK Limited (“Volition Diagnostics”), Volition America, Inc. (“Volition America”), Volition Germany GmbH (“Volition Germany”), and its one majority owned subsidiary Volition Veterinary Diagnostics Development LLC (“Volition Vet”). See Note 8(f), Commitments and Contingencies – Other Commitments, for more information regarding VolitionRx, Volition Vet, Volition Germany and Volition America. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
For the purposes of the statements of cash flows, the Company considers interest bearing deposits with original maturity dates of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company invests excess cash from its operating cash accounts in overnight investments and reflects these amounts in cash and cash equivalents in the condensed consolidated balance sheets at fair value using quoted prices in active markets for identical assets. As of September 30, 2023, cash and cash equivalents totaled approximately $10.8 million, of which $nil was held in an overnight money market account.
Trade accounts receivable are stated at the amount the Company expects to collect. Due to the nature of the accounts receivable balance, the Company believes the risk of doubtful accounts is minimal and therefore no allowance is recorded. If the financial condition of the Company’s customers were to deteriorate, adversely affecting their ability to make payments, additional allowances would be required. The Company may provide for estimated uncollectible amounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to a valuation allowance. Balances that remain outstanding after the Company has used reasonable collection efforts are written off through a charge to the valuation allowance and a credit to accounts receivable. As of September 30, 2023, the accounts receivable balance was $34,441 and the allowance for doubtful debts was $nil.
The Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” effective January 1, 2019. Under ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenues when the customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. The Company recognizes revenues following the five-step model prescribed under ASC 606: (i) identify contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenues when (or as) the Company satisfies the performance obligation(s).
The Company generates product and royalty revenues from the sale of its Nu.Q® Vet Cancer Test, from the sale of nucleosomes, and from the sale of research use only kits. In addition, revenue is received from external third parties for services the Company performs for them in its laboratory.
Revenues, and their respective treatment for financial reporting purposes under ASC 606, are as follows:
The Company receives royalty revenues on the net sales recognized during the period in which the revenue is earned, and the amount is determinable from the licensee. These are presented under “Royalty” under the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Company does not have future performance obligations under this revenue stream. In accordance with ASC 606, the Company records these revenues based on estimates of the net sales that occurred during the relevant period from the licensee. Differences between actual and estimated royalty revenues are adjusted for in the period in which they become known.
The Company includes revenue from product sales recognized during the period in which goods are shipped to third parties, and the amount is deemed collectable from the third parties. These are presented in “Product” in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company includes revenue recognized from laboratory services performed in the Company’s laboratory on behalf of third parties under “Service” under the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
For each development and/or commercialization agreement that results in revenues, the Company identifies all performance obligations, aside from those that are immaterial, which may include a license to intellectual property and know-how, development activities and/or transition activities. In order to determine the transaction price, in addition to any upfront payment, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration at the outset of the contract either utilizing the expected value or most likely amount method, depending on the facts and circumstances relative to the contract. The Company constrains the estimates of variable consideration such that it is probable that a significant reversal of previously recognized revenue will not occur throughout the life of the contract. When determining if variable consideration should be constrained, management considers whether there are factors outside the Company’s control that could result in a significant reversal of revenue. In making these assessments, the Company considers the likelihood and magnitude of a potential reversal of revenue. These estimates are re-assessed each reporting period as required.
The Company includes revenue recognized from the licensing of certain rights to third parties in “Licensing” in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. For each licensing, development and/or commercialization agreement that results in revenues, the Company identifies all performance obligations, aside from those that are immaterial, which may include a license to intellectual property and know-how, development activities and/or transition activities. In order to determine the transaction price, in addition to any upfront payment, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration at the outset of the contract either utilizing the expected value or most likely amount method, depending on the facts and circumstances relative to the contract. The Company constrains (reduces) the estimates of variable consideration such that it is probable that a significant reversal of previously recognized revenue will not occur throughout the life of the contract. When determining if variable consideration should be constrained, management considers whether there are factors outside the Company’s control that could result in a significant reversal of revenue. In making these assessments, the Company considers the likelihood and magnitude of a potential reversal of revenue. These estimates are re-assessed each reporting period as required.
Revenue from Heska Agreement
On March 28, 2022, Belgian Volition entered into a Master License and Supply Agreement (the “License Agreement”) with Heska Corporation (“Heska”), pursuant to which Belgian Volition granted Heska worldwide exclusive rights to sell the Nu.Q® Vet Cancer Test at the point of care (“POC”) initially for the screening of lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma in dogs (“Canine Lymphoma & HSA”), and non-exclusive rights to sell its Nu.Q® Vet Cancer Test in kit format (“Kits”) through Heska’s network of central reference laboratories (“Central Lab”) initially for Canine Lymphoma & HSA.
Under and subject to the terms of the License Agreement, Belgian Volition received an upfront payment of $10.0 million in 2022, and is eligible to receive further milestone payments of (i) $6.5 million upon the first commercial sale by or on behalf of Heska of a POC screening test for Canine Lymphoma & HSA, (ii) $6.5 million upon the first commercial sale by or on behalf of Heska of a POC monitoring test for the same conditions, and (iii) $5.0 million upon the first commercial sale by or on behalf of Heska of a screening or monitoring test for lymphoma in felines. The License Agreement also contains time-based triggers that could accelerate Heska’s obligation to remit one or more of the foregoing payments prior to the achievement of the specified commercial milestones. Any further expansion of the License Agreement to cover other cancer and non-cancer indications is subject to negotiation between the parties.
Belgian Volition will also supply Central Lab Kits and will receive a pre-agreed price per test, adjusted annually for inflation. The price per test for POC key components (“Key Components”) is also discounted to reflect the lower cost to Belgian Volition and additional assembly costs for Heska, as well as consideration for Heska’s upfront and milestone payments. Heska will assemble the Key Components for use at the POC, and is responsible for marketing and distribution efforts and related costs.
Deferred Revenue (Contract Liabilities) and Contract Assets
Deferred revenue consists of amounts for which the Company has an unconditional right to bill, and/or amounts for which payment has been received (including non-refundable amounts), but have not been recognized as revenue because the related performance obligations are deemed incomplete. As of September 30, 2023, the Company recorded $10.0 million as deferred revenue in respect of the non-refundable payment received in 2022 in relation to the Heska License Agreement.
Contract assets include costs and services incurred on contracts with open performance obligations. These contract assets were immaterial as of September 30, 2023.
The Company accounts for leases in accordance with ASC Topic 842, “Leases.” The Company determines whether a contract is a lease at contract inception or for a modified contract at the modification date. At inception or modification, the Company recognizes right-of-use assets (“ROU”) and related lease liabilities on the balance sheet for all leases greater than one year in duration. Lease liabilities and their corresponding ROU assets are initially measured at the present value of the unpaid lease payments as of the lease commencement date. If the lease contains a renewal and/or termination option, the exercise of the option is included in the term of the lease if the Company is reasonably certain that a renewal or termination option will be exercised. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses an estimated incremental borrowing rate (“IBR”) based on the information available at the commencement date of the respective lease to determine the present value of future payments. The IBR is determined by estimating what it would cost the Company to borrow a collateralized amount equal to the total lease payments over the lease term based on the contractual terms of the lease and the location of the leased asset.
Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term in equal amounts of rent expense attributed to each period during the term of the lease, regardless of when actual payments are made. This generally results in rent expense in excess of cash payments during the early years of a lease and rent expense less than cash payments in later years. The difference between rent expense recognized and actual rental payments is typically represented as the spread between the ROU asset and lease liability.
When calculating the present value of minimum lease payments, we account for leases as one single lease component if a lease has both lease and non-lease fixed cost components. Variable lease and non-lease cost components are expensed as incurred.
The Company does not recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities for short-term leases that have an initial lease term of 12 months or less. It recognizes the lease payments associated with short-term leases as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Basic and Diluted Net Loss Per Share
The Company computes net loss per share in accordance with ASC 260, “Earnings Per Share,” which requires presentation of both basic and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) on the face of the statement of operations and comprehensive loss. Basic EPS is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders (numerator) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding (denominator) during the period. Diluted EPS gives effect to all dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method. In computing diluted EPS, the average stock price for the period is used in determining the number of shares assumed to be purchased from the exercise of stock options or warrants. As of September 30, 2023, 9,151,605 potential common shares equivalents from warrants, options, and restricted stock units (“RSUs”) were excluded from the diluted EPS calculations as their effect is anti-dilutive.
Foreign Currency Translation
The Company has functional currencies in Euros, US Dollars and British Pounds Sterling and its reporting currency is the US Dollar. Management has adopted ASC 830-20, “Foreign Currency Matters – Foreign Currency Transactions.” All assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated using the exchange rate prevailing at the balance sheet date. For revenues and expenses, the weighted average exchange rate for the period is used. Gains and losses arising on translation of foreign currency denominated transactions are included in other comprehensive income (loss).
Fair Value Measurements
Pursuant to ASC 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures,” an entity is required to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. ASC 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy based on the level of independent, objective evidence surrounding the inputs used to measure fair value. A financial instrument’s categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. ASC 820 prioritizes the inputs into three levels that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the assets or liabilities such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets); or model-derived valuations in which significant inputs are observable or can be derived principally from, or corroborated by, observable market data.
Level 3 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
The financial instruments of the Company consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, debt, and a warrant liability. These items are considered Level 1 due to their short-term nature and their market interest rates, except for the warrant liability, which is considered Level 2 and is recorded at fair value at the end of each reporting period.
Included in the following table are the Company’s major categories of assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of September 30, 2023.
As of December 31, 2022, there was no warrant liability. The following table provides a roll-forward of the warrant liability measured at fair value on a recurring basis for the nine months ended September 30, 2023, as follows:
Research and Development
In accordance with ASC 730, “Research and Development,” the Company follows the policy of expensing its research and development costs in the period in which they are incurred. The Company incurred research and development expenses of $15.0 million and $11.2 million during the nine-months ended September 30, 2023, and September 30, 2022, respectively.
The Company accounts for warrants as either equity-classified or liability-classified instruments based on an assessment of the specific terms of the warrants and applicable authoritative guidance in ASC 480, “Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity,” and ASC 815-40, “Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity”. The assessment considers whether the warrants are freestanding financial instruments pursuant to ASC 480, meet the definition of a liability pursuant to ASC 480, and meet all of the requirements for equity classification under ASC 815-40, including whether the warrants are indexed to the Company’s own stock and whether the events where holders of the warrants could potentially require net cash settlement are within the Company’s control, among other conditions for equity classification. This assessment, which requires the use of professional judgment, is conducted at the time of warrant issuance and as of each subsequent quarterly period end date while the warrants are outstanding.
The Company records stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, “Compensation – Stock Compensation.” Under the provisions of ASC 718, stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date, based on the fair value of the award, and is recognized over the employee’s requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period. The fair value of our stock options and warrants is estimated using a Black-Scholes option valuation model. RSUs are valued based on the closing stock price on the date of grant. The estimated fair value of RSUs that include a market vesting condition will be measured on the grant date using a Monte Carlo Simulation Model. Refer to Note 7, Stock-Based Compensation, for further details.
Certain amounts presented in previously issued financial statements have been reclassified to be consistent with the current period presentation. The Company has reclassified the prior period comparative amounts for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023. A previously classified loan note has been recategorized as accounts payable balance in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The Company has implemented all new accounting pronouncements that are in effect. The Company does not believe there are any other new accounting pronouncements that have been issued that might have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef